Investigation of pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical characters of sida cordifolia
Dr. Dhanapalvenkatachalam, Samuelthavamani, Anesh C Sebastian, Anu VB, Christy Mathew, Dona Leon, Jithin Thomas, Mumthas Muhammed M
Objective:To study detailed pharmacognostic profile and preliminary phytochemical investigation of leaf of Sida cordifolia (Malvaceae). In Ayurvedic system of medicine it is used as anti-rheumatic, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-asthmatic, nasal decongestant, antiviral, laxative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and in the treatment of parkinson disease. Methods: Leaf, of Sida cordifolia was studied by Macroscopical, Microscopical, Physiochemical, Phytochemical analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple. 2.5-7 cm long and 2.5-5 cm broad, with 7-9 veins, heart shaped, serrate and truncate, acute apex, toothed margin, reticulate venation, soft, dark green colour, characteristic odour and bitter taste. Microscopically, the leaf showed. thin cuticle on both upper and lower epidermis with stellate trichomes. Upper epidermis single cell-layered, thick, and is composed of oval to oblong cells. Mesophyll tissue is consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, elongated palisade cells followed by rounded to oval shaped, loosely arranged spongy cells. In the midrib region, the upper epidermis is very thinly cuticularised with different types of trichomes. Vascular bundle sheath is distinct and composed of sclerenchymatous cells. Xylem elements are radially elongated and followed by phloem elements. A few calcium oxalate crystals are present in this layer. Stomata is anisocytic type and some places occur paracytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, saponin and steroids. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations.